The Roman Family

The Roman Family

The father in the Roman family (paterfamilias) exercised absolute and lifelong power over all other family members (patria potestas): his wife, children, and slaves. If the father’s father was alive – then he was the supreme authority in the household. Fathers were even allowed to execute their grown sons for serious offenses like treason.

Each house maintained a cult of ancestors and hearth gods and the paterfamilias was its priest. The family was thought to posses a “genius” (gens) – an inner spirit – passed down the generations. The living and the dead members of the family shared the gens and were bound by it.

Legitimate offspring belonged to the father’s family. The father retained custody if the couple (rarely) divorced exclusively at the husband’s initiative. The father had the right to disown a newborn – usually deformed boys or girls. This led to a severe shortage of women in Rome.

The father of the bride had to pay a sizable dowry to the family of the groom, thus impoverishing the other members of the family. Moreover, daughters shared equally in the estate of a father who died without a will – thus transferring assets from their family of origin to their husband’s family. No wonder females were decried as an economic liability.

At the beginning, slaves were considered to be part of the family and were well-treated. They were allowed to save money (peculium) and to purchase their freedom. Freed slaves became full-fledged Roman citizens and usually stayed on with the family as hired help or paid laborers. Only much later, in the vast plantations amassed by wealthy Romans, were slaves abused and regarded as inanimate property.

Things That You Need To Know When It Comes To Wedding Planning

Things That You Need To Know When It Comes To Wedding Planning

Your wedding should be a day about you and your partner. Letting others get too involved in the planning process (even if they are paying for it) will only result in a day that doesn’t reflect the two of you. This article has ideas on how you can make your wedding your own, and keep an eye on the budget at the same time.

For a summer-themed wedding cake try using a warm color scheme. Mix bold colors like fuschia and orange with white icing for some eye-catching “pops” of color. You can experiment with ribbons or add some sugar flowers and butterflies. You could even use a cupcake tower so that your guests can have any flavor they want.

Buy local! Consider buying and hiring for your wedding from local companies. This will help support your local economy, as well as, ensure fresh products will arrive the day of your marriage. It will also save you money on shipping products and travel time for hired services such as your DJ.

If any part of your wedding is going to be outdoors, even if it’s just for taking photographs, have a rain plan. Choose a location that has some sort of cover or building, like a gazebo, so you can at least get some photos with a gorgeous rainfall background in them.

Look at suits for the men in the wedding as opposed to tuxedos. Suits can very easily fill the role of a tuxedo with the right accoutrements. You will find that not only will these be cheaper to rent than a tux, in some cases, purchasing the suits can be cheaper than a tuxedo rental.

If you’re going to be photographing a wedding, make sure to visit the location where the wedding will be held so you know what angles will be available to you and what barriers might get in your way. If you know where everything is you’ll have a much easier time on the wedding day.

Having a guestbook or reception video is an excellent way for each guest to be able to share their thoughts and memories with you. You can look back on it later as your relationship grows and remember all the people who are most important to you and how much they factor into your life together.

It is okay to let loose at your wedding reception. Many people take their wedding day too serious and do not remember it is supposed to be a joyous occasion. When this happens, they look back at their special day with unpleasant memories. Laugh with your guests, and dance to upbeat music.

Be sure that you schedule at least ninety minutes to get ready for the ceremony. This will give you ample time to make sure that you look your best and make it easier to capture those moments with the camera. You do not want to rush this process on your big day.

There is no way to completely get rid of that stressful feeling from planning a wedding. You can, however, take control making sure that you are getting what you want and your partner wants without offending everyone who is trying to help. Use the advice here to make all of these things a reality.

Divorce – How to rebuild your life – your credit

Divorce – How to rebuild your life – your credit

Your life is not over when you are going through a divorce. You are in for the ride of your life. You will have a bumpy road ahead, but you have to make sure that you are able to take on this challenge head on. You need to make sure that you are ready for the world that is ahead of you and what you need to.

You will need to think about more than just the emotional support that you need when you are going through a divorce. You need to worry about your finances. You will want to have a great credit standing so that you are ready to go on with you life on your own. You need to make wise choices for your finances and to keep your life together and on track. You will want to start with your credit cards and find out how to keep them in control.

You want to make sure that you are canceling your credit cards that are in both you and your ex partner’s name. You want to make sure that you are terminating them first so that you are not going to have any battles over charges. You will then want to make sure that you are getting rid of the credit cards that are not good for you. This will include any of the cards that have a high interest rate or that have annual fees added to them. You do not want to be paying high interest on a credit card that you may or may not need for a big purchase at some point.

You will want to make sure that you are finding ways to lower your interest rates on your credit cards that you do keep. You can do this sometimes by simply asking the card companies to do it. Sometimes if you are a good customer they will help you with your interest rate and give you a break. You may want to think very carefully before you decide to use your credit cards on some of the items that you purchase. You need to make sure that you are in need of this purchase before you decide to make the transaction.

You will need to contact all of your creditors and make sure that you are informing them that you are divorced and that you are not going to want your ex to have access to your accounts. In some of the cases, you may have to close your current accounts that you both have. Sometimes they may have to arrange for you to have a new account set up so that your information is the only thing on the account. This will help you keep track of your credit so that you are not going to be responsible for any purchases if any that are not by you.

You will need to start building new credit for yourself. You may want to think about how you are going to do this. You want to make sure that you are making the right choices so that you are able to keep your credit in good standing and make a new path for you to go on. You want to try and find a way to pay off your old credit cards and loan amounts so that you are starting with a fresh and clean slate.

Another good idea is to open up a bank account or savings account so that you can get on your way to saving money for yourself that you will need later on. You will want to make sure that you are able to put a little bit of money away each week or month so that you can start building up your good name. This will be a huge help for you later on when you may try to open up accounts for credit cards or for bigger purchases like a home, car, or to get any type of loan for any reason. You will see how this will also help you build a stronger financial security net for yourself as well.

You will want to try and keep on track as much as you can. Avoid buying anything that you do not need and keep your spending to a minimum. Once you have achieved your goal of building up your credit and getting back on the right track, you will see that you can start your way to a better and more secure financial future.

How To Get The Wedding Of Your Dreams

How To Get The Wedding Of Your Dreams

A wedding day is often the most anticipated event in a person’s life, so it is important that it is enjoyable and memorable. Regardless of the scale of your ceremony, from something small and intimate to a grand royal treatment, apply the advice of this article for a smoothly executed affair.

If you are having only one beautician doing all of the makeup and hair styles, you should be sure that the bride is the last to have it done. Fresh makeup and hair is going to make all the difference in the appearance of the bride on her big day.

A good thing for the bride to keep in mind is that you want to make sure that to have an emergency makeup kit on hand for your special day. This is helpful in case of last minute situations that might cause your makeup to get messed up.

If you are using a wedding planner, it is important that you work with them to make the seating arrangements. You know your guests, so you know who should be seated with whom. A wedding planner is just going to randomly put people together, which could end up causing tension and stress at your wedding reception.

It is easy to overlook the basics in the midst of your large scale wedding planning. Besides the important things like selecting a venue, choosing a caterer, and picking out a dress, you will also need to make sure you have makeup, tissues, and maybe even some Advil. Creating a checklist of all the simple and small things you may need is a good way to be prepared.

Let bridesmaids choose their own dresses. Instead of forcing a certain dress on different body types, dictate the color and leave the rest for them to do. If you want, you can also have veto power over the dress they choose. Giving bridesmaids freedom to choose their own dresses means less money and grief for you.

Try to avoid the holidays when you are planning your wedding. Yes, some weddings are going to happen on holidays for specific reasons. However, if your’s is not one of these, target a date that will not force guests to decide between your special day and a holiday trip. Find a neutral time that will allow for the best turnout.

A very nice gift for your bridal party is a customized piece of jewelry that connects you to your girls. This way, after your wedding has passed, each girl will have a special way to relive the wedding and the fun that they had being part of such an exciting time.

If you will be having a wedding where many of the guests are out of town, you might want to consider sending out a save the date post card that just serves as an announcement of your upcoming marriage. It will help these guests start planning and making it more likely that they will attend.

Wedding day jitters are inevitable, but you should realize by now that they don’t have to cause problems. Just keep in mind what you’ve learned from this article, and your wedding will be perfect. By following this advice, you can make sure that all your memories of your wedding day are happy ones.

Child Custody and Seeing Your Kids – Visitation

Child Custody and Seeing Your Kids – Visitation

Child custody has several forms, sole custody and joint custody. Sole custody means one parent gets physical as well as legal custody. Joint custody is another type of child custody, where both parents get the right to have a share in making decisions for the child. There is also a type of joint custody where the child gets to stay for some period of time with each of the parent. However, it is said that this can be a bit difficult for the child.

It is necessary that joint custody that both parents are co-operating with each other regarding decision making about the child. It all depends on how the divorce proceedings have been, in case of a bitter divorce and conflict; it might be better that sole custody of child is awarded to a single parent.

It is required by the state laws that whichever type of custody is awarded, it is necessary that it should be in the best interests of the child. Unlike in earlier times, when mother was taken as the correct person to raise a child, today the court looks at the fact and selects the parent who has been playing an active role in raising the child.

The court allows periodical visitation rights to the parent who has not been awarded physical custody of the child; these visits take place in the home of the parent who has not been given the physical custody. However, the court might not give any rights for visitation if there is fear of any physical harm or abuse in the history of parents, the court instead of denying totally might give supervised visitation charges.

In cases where there are charges of abuse, especially sexual abuse hurled at one another by each parent, the court can give further instructions for investigation in case it is in doubt of these charges. Though there have been a number of cases where accusation of abuse has been used to get more money or to harm the spouse’s reputation.

However, if the accusation of child abuse does not hold true in someone’s case, he should not be silent over the issue and should try to gain help from several organizations which provide advice, support and sometimes legal advice. One such organization is VOCAL (Victims of Child Abuse Laws).

According to the law, visitation rights and child support payments are different issues, therefore though visitation has not been allowed one is required to pay. The court, while giving the custody of the child might take a view of ‘in best interests of the child’ where it considers several factors.

Most times both parents agree that the mother should get custody, but times are changing across the board and men are gaining more custody recently.

Use These Tips To Help Make Your Wedding Day Everything You Dreamed Of

Use These Tips To Help Make Your Wedding Day Everything You Dreamed Of

If you have just become engaged, you will need to start planning your wedding right away. You may be surprised how far in advance venues and vendors must be booked in advance of your wedding date. The following tips will outline the work ahead for you to plan out the perfect wedding.

Do not worry if you and your beloved can not take a honeymoon directly after the wedding! Perhaps you just can not afford it yourself; no one gave you one; or some other obligation prevents you from a honeymoon. Do not let is get you down! While a honeymoon is traditional – it is not required – to start a foundation for a healthy marriage.

Starting to plan your wedding? Use resources like StumbleUpon to select your interests (weddings, of course) and look through blogs, websites, and idea boards such as Pintrest during your free time. You will find many great DIY ideas as well as some ideas you may not have thought of otherwise.

Make sure that your husband and his groomsmen have everything planned in advance in the days leading up to the wedding. Check that they have all of the materials for their tuxedos and that everything fits as well. This will reduce your anxiety and ensure that everything goes according to plan.

Try to buy your best man or maid of honor a gift to show your appreciation for helping to make your wedding day a good one. This will make them feel honored for being part of your special day. Purchase the gift way before the wedding so you do not forget to do so with all the craziness of your big day.

Consider a cash bar for your wedding reception. Alcohol is popular among guests, but it is also expensive. Opting for a cash bar puts money back in your pocket that can be used toward the rest of the wedding expenses. Guests still have the option to drink, so everyone is happy.

Put a lot of thought into the seating chart that you create for your wedding. Make sure that the elderly do not have to travel a long way to get to their seat and that your family is close to you. Also, try to have the members of each family sit with each other.

When figuring out your seating plan, make sure that tables only include people who know each other and who most definitely LIKE each other! Don’t seat your cousin with your boss if he once fired her for being late or your Mom and your Dad who happen to be divorced.

Have your wedding on a non-traditional day. For example, if you celebrate on a Friday instead of a Saturday, you will save a substantial amount of money. There are some complications associated with having a wedding on a work day, so think about having it in the evening. You will also have the entire weekend to continue to celebrate with friends and family members.

Weddings can be stressful events, especially if you have not done the proper amount of research and planning. Make your life easier by taking advice from people who have been there. It’s nice to avoid mistakes that others in your shoes have made. You will cut down on your financial burden, as well as your stress.

Situations That Leads To The Filing For Bankruptcy

Situations That Leads To The Filing For Bankruptcy

In the financial world, one thing lingers to be perpetually true- that is filing for bankruptcy should always be considered as the last resort. Bankruptcy has become a common word especially in the financial world where many people strive to make the best out of their money in order to have a good quality of living. The image of bankruptcy has grown over for years as a desperate act and as a sign of weakness especially in terms of financial and management standing.

This fact makes bankruptcy a thing to be avoided by many because of its long term effects on the credit-worth of a person filing for it. It is greatly necessary to examine all things thoroughly before considering bankruptcy for it entails a lot of personal and emotional difficulties in the years thereafter.

This false image of bankruptcy is, however, not true to all situations. Though it still remains that declaring bankruptcy ought to be the last thing to enter one’s mind, the impression of it as a reflection of the person’s financial mismanagement is not always true. There are also situations wherein declaring bankruptcy is the solitary viable option of regaining control over huge amounts of debts and mountains of liabilities.

One inevitable reason which may lead a person to apply for bankruptcy amongst thousands of other applicants is the occurrence of financial difficulties brought about by a divorce situation. Statistics show that thirty percent of all bankruptcy applications root from this case because most often than not, after a divorce challenge, all the liabilities becomes halved between the two petitioners making their financial life a lot harder than their married state. Unpaid bills and credit cards with towering interest rate is a primary cause of the mountainous debt accumulated over the years. When this happens and the person finds no single alternative in remedying the situation, applying for bankruptcy is already a considerable option.

Another compelling situation which one can experience is the rise of bills with regards to an unexpected hospitalization and medical services. Although some have insurances for medical endeavors, there are times when the payments to be made are not covered by insurances or even if covered, the bills have already exceeded the limitations for medical support. This scenario leads to a very saddening and challenging life full of debts and interests due to unpaid bills in hospitalization. In this case, bankruptcy becomes the only way to resolve it.

Also, a common case which covers about ten percent of all bankruptcy applicants is the unpaid credit cards and student loans of those enrolled in college. People who are faced with mounting credit card bills coming from many credit companies will find the situation very daunting. If no extra income source can be found immediately, there is no way out but to declare personal bankruptcy.

Bad business venture, sales flop, new product launching or collection problems can truly damage the cash flow of a business. This has not spared even the biggest multi billion corporations. Such situation can render executives insolvent and thus file for bankruptcy.

Although bankruptcy can become a very hard strife for a person lacking financial resources, there are available services which can offer help for a person to recover and regain control his financial predicament.

Auto Insurance: Things Every Car Owner Needs To Know (3)

Auto Insurance: Things Every Car Owner Needs To Know

There are many different tips available with regard to saving money on your car insurance. Before you sign up with an insurance company, you should make sure they offer any discounts you are interested in so you can be sure to get the best deal possible on your car insurance. Other tips like this are written in this article. If you are interested in saving money on your car insurance, then please read on.

Before you decide to purchase any auto insurance policy, one of the first things you should do is calculate your total mileage. Some people do not drive their vehicles that often, and they may be privy to certain discounts if they only use their automobiles for work use or other limited uses. Driving less means you are less of a risk.

Pay your premiums in full! This is one of the best ways to instantly get a discount from most insurance companies. Instead of paying your premiums over 6 months or even a year, if you have the money to pay everything immediately, you will most likely get a noticeable discount.

Before choosing the auto insurance policy that you think is right for you, compare rates. Comparing rates has been made easy with so many online insurance companies. Many of these companies will compare rates for you. Go to a couple of these sites and get many quotes from each before making your decision.

Another way to qualify for a discount on your auto insurance premiums is if you are a member of AAA or AARP. Often times there are discounts of up to twenty percent for being a member of these, which practically negates the cost of being a member, so it is like being a member for free. So sign up for AARP or AAA today!

Even if you have been going to your same insurance agent for years, you may be missing out on a good deal. Have your insurance agent review your auto insurance and see if you qualify for any discounts due to life changes such as marriage, good driving records or being able to combine insurances to give you a better rate.

If you are a man, you should be prepared to pay more for your car insurance. This is because, statistically, men are more likely to have accidents. If you are a married man, however, the agencies tend to believe you are more responsible. Make sure that you re-evaluate your policy if you change your marital status.

If you’re currently covered by a car insurance policy and happen to see the same policy for a better price, do not jump at the offer right away. A lot of drivers will instantly switch sides when they see the dollar signs, but they never bother to read the fine print. Companies lure you in with the promise of low payments, but leave you lacking in coverage, so always be weary of this fact.

There are many ways to save money on your car insurance. Be sure to check the insurance company out that you are interested in before buying a policy with them so you can be sure they honor the discounts you are interested in. This way you will get the most discounts available.

Find Out The Facts About Insurance Now

Find Out The Facts About Insurance Now

Many people believe that finding the right insurance is a struggle, but that is only true if you don’t know the right way to find what you need. Like anything else, you need to be educated about the right way to look for the insurance you want if you want to find it. This article contains a number of tips on insurance that will help you get what you are looking for.

Try to bundle all of your insurance policies with a single company to get the greatest discount on your premiums. Call your favorite company and ask them what kind of discount they’ll give you, and you might be surprised at the savings you’ll be offered. Tell them about an offer you got elsewhere and they’re likely to match it.

Check your current or existing policies, before purchasing additional insurance. Often, an existing policy may provide more coverage than you realize, making it unnecessary to purchase an additional policy. For example, home insurance often includes coverage for physical injuries sustained by guests in your home, making additional liability coverage unnecessary.

Any time you have a life event such as marriage or children occur or when you have a lifestyle change such as children leaving the home for good, take the time to evaluate your insurance policies, determine your new needs and where you can save money or need to increase coverage.

Be aware of the insurance requirements of your state of residence or any other entities mandating insurance coverage. Many states require vehicle owners to carry minimum levels of liability coverage on their vehicle in case of an accident. Most mortgage companies require home insurance coverage adequate to cover the cost of the property in case of total loss. Before making any significant purchase, be sure you are aware of the insurance requirements and costs as well.

Small business owners should always make sure that they have small business insurance. It provides you with financial protection against things like natural disasters and power shortages. Things that are unpredictable like that can cause a business to quickly go under if you are not properly covered with the correct insurance.

Use the internet to your advantage when doing research on what type of insurance to purchase. The internet has a wealth of resources on the pros and cons of different types of plans and great advice on what you should get at different points and times in your life. Use the information available so that you are as educated on the process as your agent.

Although loyalty is important, in most cases, it would be in your best interest to switch insurance carriers if you feel you can get a better deal from another company. Otherwise, if you allow loyalty to dictate your choice, you may end up in a less than desirable position, because the insurance company will put their best interest before yours.

As was stated in the beginning of this article, finding the right insurance is really a matter of education. If you know the right way to look for insurance, you will have an easier time finding what you need. Apply the advice from this article and your finances and insurance policy will be a match made in heaven.

Billie Holiday

Billie Holiday

Billie Holiday was one of the most famous jazz music singers in America. Her real name was Eleanora Fagan. Like most lives of musicians, she had a very bad time growing up which damaged her career. Her life is written about in the autobiography Lady Sings The Blues, but there are many things in there that are not really valid. Her stage name is from an actress, Billie Dove and her father Clarence Holiday.

Billie grew up in the poorest area of Baltimore. Her parents married when she was three years old, but it did not last. They divorced and she was raised by her mother and various relatives. She had been raped when she was eleven years old, and skipped school a lot, so she was placed in The House of the Good Shepherd in 1925. The House of the Good Shepherd was a reform school for Catholics. A friend of the family helped her out of there a couple of years later. She then went to New York to live with her mother. A year later, her mother discovered a neighbor was raping Billie, the man spent three months in jail.

Things seemed to go from bad to worse. Billie had said a brothel claimed her where she worked as a prostitute , and then was in prison for awhile. She started singing for tips in the Harlem night clubs in the 1930’s. It was said when she had not a dime to her name and was about to be evicted, she sang “Trave’lin All Alone” at a club and had the audience crying. She kept singing for tips until she ended up at a popular jazz club called Pod’s and Jerry’s in Harlem. A lot of her performing cannot be discovered, but it is said she was working at Monette’s, another club in 1933 when John Hammond, a talent scout found her.

John got her to record with Benny Goodman that same year. She sang in a group with Teddy Wilson, a pianist. Their debut was the song “Miss Brown You”, and “What A Little Moonlight Can Do”, which made her a famous jazz singer. The year following that, she began recording under her own stage name. Some of the musicians who she performed with her the best, such as Lester young, a tenor sax player. Lester was a boarder in her mother’s house, so they were good friends. He was the one who gave her the nickname Lady Day. She gave him the nickname Prez. She also performed with Artie Shaw and Count Basie.

When Billie was on the Columbia label, someone gave her the song “Strange Fruit” about lynching. She sang the song at a club in 1939, afraid of some kind of retaliation. Later on, Billie said that it was similar to the death of her father, and that is part of the reason why she performed it. She was upset that a lot of people didn’t understand the song. She said,” They’ll ask me to sing that sexy song about the people swinging.” Columbia didn’t record it, but Commodore Records did. She sang that song for twenty years.

She began doing drugs in the 1940’s, married Jimmy Monroe, a trombonist in 1941. At the same time, she was with her drug dealer Joe Guy living with him common law. She divorced her husband in 1947, and departed from her drug dealer, but spent eight months in a correctional facility for women. Because her Cabaret Card was taken, she couldn’t perform in clubs in New York City for the last twelve years of her life, except once at the Ebony Club with permission.

She continued on with substance abuse, and getting into the worst relationships with men.
She died in 1959 from cirrhosis of the liver. She was just 44 years old. All she had was seventy cents in the bank, and a 0 tabloid fee. A movie Lady Sings The Blues was done about her life starring Diana Ross. It wasn’t the real story but it gave Diana a Best Actress nomination. Billie has been an inspiration for many people and is still one of the best jazz music vocalists today.